Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Work Life Expectancy at Age 50

How many years of work life remain for men and women at age 50? That depends on their educational attainment, according to a study published in Demography. Those with a college degree have a significantly longer work life expectancy than those with no more than a high school diploma, the researchers found. For Black men, having a college degree more than doubles their work life expectancy at age 50. Here are the results by highest level of education...

Black men
High school diploma: 8.2 years
College degree: 17.6 years

Black women
High school diploma: 9.9 years
College degree: 10.3 years

Hispanic men
High school diploma: 11.0 years
College degree: 14.3 years

Hispanic women
High school diploma: 11.2 years
College degree: 12.9 years

Non-Hispanic white men
High school diploma: 13.2 years
College degree: 16.3 years

Non-Hispanic white women
High school diploma: 11.5 years
College degree: 14.4 years

Some of the difference in work life expectancy by education is due to higher mortality rates among the less educated, say the researchers. But most is "attributable to weaker labor force attachment among the less-educated."

Source: Demography, Working Life Expectancy at Age 50 in the United States and the Impact of the Great Recession

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Why Do the Educated Live Longer?

The better educated you are, the longer you are likely to live. What are the reasons for the educational disparity in mortality? A study published in the journal Demographic Research investigated the contribution of one factor: the greater prevalence of obesity among the less educated.

Previous studies have shown obesity to have little effect on differences in life expectancy by educational attainment, but researcher Yana C. Vierboom takes issue with those studies because their measure of obesity is body mass index (BMI) at the time of the survey. This introduces bias into the results, says Vierboom, "given that less educated people are more likely to contract illnesses that induce weight loss." Instead, lifetime maximum BMI is a better measure of obesity.

Using lifetime maximum BMI, Vierboom finds obesity to be an important contributor to the educational disparity in mortality. "Differences in maximum BMI were associated with between 10.3% and 12% of mortality differences between college graduates and all others," she says. Among nonsmokers, between 18.4% and 27.6% of mortality differences between college graduates and all others were associated with differences in maximum BMI."

Source: Demographic Research, The Contribution of Differences in Adiposity to Educational Disparities in Mortality in the United States

Monday, December 11, 2017

How Many Move after They Retire?

What percentage of older Americans move after they retiree? According to a Transamerica survey, a substantial 39 percent moved. The single biggest reason retirees moved was to downsize (34 percent), followed by to reduce expenses (29 percent), to start a new chapter in life (28 percent), and to be closer to family and friends (27 percent). Multiple responses to this question were allowed.

Among workers aged 50 or older, expectations about moving in retirement are in line with the experiences of retirees. The 57 percent majority of workers aged 50-plus would prefer to stay in their current home when they retire, 26 percent would like to move and 17 percent are unsure.

Source: Transamerica Center for Retirement Studies, The Current State of Retirement: Pre-Retiree Expectations and Retiree Realities

Friday, December 08, 2017

Who Is Manly, Who Is Not?

Nearly one-third of American men and women regard themselves as "very masculine" or "very feminine," according to a Pew Research Center survey. But attitudes vary by generation. Millennials are less likely than older Americans to regard themselves as very masculine or very feminine, and the differences are much bigger by generation among women...

Percent of men saying they are "very masculine"
Total men: 31%
Millennials: 24%
Gen Xers: 36%
Boomers: 34%
Older: 30%

Percent of women saying they are "very feminine"
Total women: 32%
Millennials: 19%
Gen Xers: 32%
Boomers: 36%
Older: 53%

Education also divides the public on the issue of manliness (and womanliness). Among men with a bachelor's degree or more education, only 22 percent regard themselves as very masculine compared with 37 percent of those who went no further than high school. The comparable figures for women are 24 and 38 percent, respectively.

Source: Pew Research Center, On Gender Differences, No Consensus on Nature vs. Nurture

Thursday, December 07, 2017

Divided Over the National Anthem

Should professional athletes be required to stand during the national anthem? Americans are divided on the issue, according to PRRI's 2017 American Values Survey. Overall, the 55 percent majority of the public thinks athletes should be required to stand, but attitudes differ by demographic characteristic and political affiliation...

Professional athletes should be required to stand during national anthem (% who agree)
Total aged 18-plus: 55%

Blacks: 23%
Hispanics: 60%
Non-Hispanic Whites: 61%

Non-Hispanic Whites with college degree: 47%
Non-Hispanic Whites without college degree: 69%

Democrats: 32%
Republicans: 86%

Aged 18 to 29: 43%
Aged 65-plus: 68%

Source: PRRI, One Nation, Divided, Under Trump: Findings from the 2017 American Values Survey

Wednesday, December 06, 2017

Years of Healthy Grandparenthood Are Expanding

With Millennials delaying marriage and childbearing longer than any previous generation, many wannabe grandparents are experiencing FOMO—fear of missing out. Will they still be around—and able to enjoy—their grandchildren when they finally arrive? A study in Demography should help ease their fear. Despite delayed childbearing, expected years of healthy grandparenthood are rising.

Using data from several surveys including the Health and Retirement Study, researchers Rachel Margolis and Laura Wright examined grandparenthood and health status over time. They wanted to determine whether the years of healthy grandparenthood, "one of the most satisfying parts of older age," are expanding or contracting as the dueling forces of later childbearing and longer life expectancy interact.

The answer: the best part of old age is expanding. Expected years of healthy grandparenthood for Americans at age 50 grew significantly between 1992–94 and 2010. For men, years of healthy grandparenthood grew from 13.2 to 15.8 (a gain of 2.6 years). For women they climbed from 15.9 to 18.9 (a gain of 3.0 years). The proportion of grandparenthood spent healthy also increased during the time period, rising from 71 to 73 percent for men and from 69 to 74 percent for women.

Healthy grandparenthood is a big deal not just because it's fun. It is a time when elders provide important transfers to younger family members, the researchers note—such as providing child care. In contrast, "unhealthy grandparenthood represents a period when the middle generation may be more likely to provide care upward," say the researchers.

Source: Demography, Healthy Grandparenthood: How Long Is It, and How Has It Changed?

Tuesday, December 05, 2017

How Siblings Affect Time Use

Nearly 80 percent of children under age 18 live with siblings, according to the Census Bureau. But no one has examined how the presence of siblings affects what children do on an average day—until now. A study published in Demographic Research uses time diary data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement to compare the time use of children with and without siblings at home. This is important, say the study's authors, because "the sibling relationship is typically the longest-lasting family relationship in an individual's life." Here are some of the most important differences in time use between children with and without siblings in the home...
  • Children without siblings spend more of their discretionary time engaged with no one else—16 hours per week versus 12 hours for children with siblings.
  • Children without siblings spend more of their time engaged with parents and no one else—22 hours per week versus 6 hours for children with siblings.
  • Children with siblings spend more time engaged with others but not their parents—27 hours per week versus 17 hours for children without siblings.
  • Children with siblings spend more time engaged with parents and others at the same time—15 hours per week versus 5 hours for children without siblings. 
"Children with coresident siblings spend the majority of their discretionary time engaged in activities with their siblings, highlighting the important role that siblings can play in each other's lives," the researchers conclude.

Source: Demographic Research, Siblings and Children's Time Use in the United States

Monday, December 04, 2017

Young People Do Not Share Our Values!

That's the opinion of the great majority of Americans aged 18 or older, according to a PRRI survey. When asked whether they agree or disagree with the statement, "Most young people today do not share the same values I do," the 75 percent majority of the public completely (32 percent) or mostly (43 percent) agrees.

This "you kids get off my lawn!" attitude is shared by every race and Hispanic origin group and by both Democrats and Republicans...

"Most young people today do not share the same values I do" (percent agreeing)
Total public: 75%

Blacks: 85%
Hispanics: 73%
Non-Hispanic Whites: 76%

Republicans: 87%
Democrats: 64%

Source: PRRI, Attitudes on Child and Family Wellbeing: National and Southeast/Southwest Perspectives

Friday, December 01, 2017

Forty Years of Working Mothers

Most women with preschoolers are in the labor force. This is how the percentage has grown over the past four decades...

Labor force participation rate of women with children under age 6
2016: 65.3%
2006: 63.0%
1996: 62.3%
1986: 54.4%
1976: 40.1%

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook

Thursday, November 30, 2017

Spending on "Taxi Fares" Has Soared since 2010

Ride sharing has exploded since Uber rolled out in 2011. According to the Consumer Expenditure Survey, average household spending on what the Bureau of Labor Statistics calls "taxi fares and limousine services" climbed 47 percent between 2010 and 2016, after adjusting for inflation. The Uber effect is especially strong among Millennials...

Percent change in average household spending on "taxi fares," 2010 to 2016
Under age 25: –10%
Aged 25 to 34: +156%
Aged 35 to 44: +97%
Aged 45 to 54: +17%
Aged 55 to 64: –4%
Aged 65-plus: +17%

Drilling down to spending on "taxi fares" in home city only (excluding taxi fares on trips) and the increase in average household spending is even greater—55 percent overall and 181 percent for householders aged 25 to 34.

Source: Demo Memo analysis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Consumer Expenditure Survey

Wednesday, November 29, 2017

Living Arrangements of Young Adults: 1967–2017

The living arrangements of 25-to-34-year-olds have changed dramatically over the past 50 years. In 1967, more than 80 percent of 25-to-34-year-olds lived with a spouse. In 2017, no single living arrangement accounts for the majority of the age group...

Living arrangements of men aged 25 to 34
36.7% live with a spouse in 2017, down from 82.6% in 1967
18.3% are the child of the householder, double the 9.1% of 1967
14.0% live with a partner, up from just 0.3% in 1967
11.4% live alone, three times the 3.7% of 1967
  9.9% live with nonrelatives, up from 1.4% in 1967
  9.7% live with other relatives, up from 2.9% in 1967

Living arrangements of women aged 25 to 34
45.1% live with a spouse in 2017, down from 82.7% in 1967
15.3% live with other relatives, up from 8.5% in 1967
14.1% live with a partner, up from just 0.2% in 1967
11.5% are the child of the householder, more than double the 5.3% of 1967
  8.8% live alone, nearly four times the 2.3% of 1967
  5.2% live with nonrelatives, up from 1.0% in 1967

Source: Census Bureau, Historical Living Arrangements of Adults

Tuesday, November 28, 2017

Nearly 1/3 of Accidental Deaths are Poisonings

More than 146,000 Americans died from "accidents (unintentional injuries)" in 2015, according to the National Center for Health Statistics, making it the 4th leading cause of death in the United States. Nearly one-third of accidental deaths are due to unintentional poisoning—mostly drug overdoses. Unintentional poisoning has been the leading mechanism of accidental death since 2011, reports NCHS.

Number (and percent distribution) of accidental deaths by mechanism in 2015
Total accidental deaths: 146,571
Deaths from poisoning: 47,478 (32%)
Deaths from motor vehicles: 36,161 (25%)
Deaths from falls: 33,381 (23%)
Deaths due to other mechanisms: 29,551 (20%)

If unintentional poisoning were a separate cause of death, it would rank 10th among the leading causes of death in the United States.

Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Deaths: Final Data for 2015

Monday, November 27, 2017

Real Weight Is Rising. So Is Ideal

Americans are putting on the pounds, but that's ok with them because their "ideal" weight is also rising, according to a Gallup Survey. "One apparent way Americans cope with the knowledge they are gaining weight and the potential health problems this entails is to adjust their idea of what they should weigh," reports Gallup.

In the past decade, the average man has gained two pounds and now weighs 195. The average woman has gained three pounds and now weighs 158. (These are self-reported rather than measured weights and likely to be underestimates.) For both men and women, "ideal" weight climbed four pounds over the past decade—to 183 for men and 140 for women.

As men and women have gained weight, fewer regard themselves as overweight. Only 35 percent of men consider themselves to be overweight, down from 38 percent 10 years ago. Forty percent of women consider themselves overweight today, down from 45 percent a decade ago. "Until these trends can be reversed...the weight problem that plagues the U.S. is not going away," concludes Gallup.

Source: Gallup, Americans Weigh More but Shun "Overweight" Label

Friday, November 24, 2017

Online Is Close to Top Venue for Christmas Shopping

Ask Americans where they will do their Christmas shopping, and the single most popular venue is (still) the department store, according to a Gallup survey. Fully 72 percent of the public reports being very/somewhat likely to shop at a department store for Christmas gifts. Department stores have been the number-one venue since Gallup first asked this question in 1998.

Close behind department stores and tied for second place with discount stores is online shopping: 65 percent of the public says it is very/somewhat likely to shop for Christmas gifts online. At the rate online shopping is growing, it will surpass department stores the next time Gallup asks this question...

Very/somewhat likely to shop online for Christmas gifts
2017: 65%
2013: 53%
2008: 43%
2002: 29%
1998: 10%

Young adults are most likely to say they are very/somewhat likely to shop online for Christmas (76 percent). People aged 65 or older are least likely (47 percent).

Source: Gallup, Holiday Spending Plans: Online Up, Discount Stores Down